What is Water pollution?
‘Water covers two-thirds of the Earth’s surface, with over 97% present in the oceans and less than 1% in freshwater streams and lakes. Water pollution is a phenomenon that is characterized by detoriation of the quality of land water ( Rivers, lakes, marshes and ground water) or seawater as a result of various human activities. Human activities related with water pollution comprises various industries such as mining agriculture, stock breeding fisheries, forestry, urban human activities, manufacturing industries, construction works and various tertiary industries. Even such unpolluted geograpgical areas rain water is having dissolved CO2, O2 and N2. Such surface and dissolved waters have compounds of Na, Mg, Ca and Fe in them. Some of the uses of water include Recreation and aesthetics, Public water supply, Fish and other forms of wildlife, Agriculture and industry.’
Sources .Any substance that doesn’t’ allow the normal use of water must be degraded as a water pollutant. Major sources are as follows.
Agro based :Fertilizers given to crops are not fully consumed. Part of it remains in the solid form and thereby polluting ground water. Fertilizer are sources of pollution that can be classified as a “non- point” in contrast to “point sources” such as sewage and industrial waste which are easy to eliminate. Agriculture chemicals are considered as a source of variety of chemicals such as insecticides, sterilizers and weed killers and play a major role on the operation of modern day culture.
Mining:Mining activities generate large amount of solid waste in most cases occur as heaps. Such solid waste pollutants and such wastes not only pollute water by exudation toxic substances but also the rapid regeneration of suspended sols in water. The various kinds of mining activity include Metal mining Industry, Coal mining industry, Sulphur mine, Petroleum and Natural Gas drilling industries, stone quarrying and clay supply industries
Classification of pollution: When point-source pollution enters the environment, the place most affected is usually the area immediately around the source. For example, when a tanker accident occurs, the oil slick is concentrated around the tanker itself and, in the right ocean conditions, the pollution disperses the further away from the tanker you go. This is less likely to happen with nonpoint source pollution which, by definition, enters the environment from many different places at once. here are also two different ways in which pollution can occur. If pollution comes from a single location, such as a discharge pipe attached to a factory, it is known as point-source pollution. Other examples of point source pollution include an oil spill from a tanker, a discharge from a smoke stack (factory chimney), or someone pouring oil from their car down a drain. A great deal of water pollution happens not from one single source but from many different scattered sources. This is called nonpoint-source pollution
Life is ultimately about choices—and so is pollution. We can live with sewage-strewn beaches, dead rivers, and fish that are too poisonous to eat. Or we can work together to keep the environment clean so the plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. We can take individual action to help reduce water pollution. for example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, not pouring oil down drains, reducing pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too, by helping out on beach cleans or litter picks to keep our rivers and seas that little bit cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass laws that will make pollution harder and the world less polluted. Working together, we can make pollution less of a problem—and the world a better place.